Always give the reason for the citation. Introduce your source as an expert in the field or someone with first-hand knowledge.
a. Dr. Jones, head of pediatrics at Boston University hospital, says, " ."
b. A 2004 study by the influential American Society of Pediatrics demonstrates that "50 % of children taken to hospitals "
c. Celia Brown, whose 4-year-old son has been in and out of hospitals since his birth, comments, " "
Length of Quotations
Within a paragraph, a quote should be no more than three lines. If a quote is more than three lines, it must be indented. Here are two examples:
a. Dr. Jones, head of pediatrics at Boston University Hospital, has argued that "children with cancer should never be admitted to a hospital." (24) To some readers, without an explanation, such a statement seems incredible and irresponsible.
b. In a recent address to the National Pediatricians' Association, Dr. Jones, Head of Pediatrics at Boston University Hospital, has argued that
Children with cancer should never be admitted to a hospital. By nature, hospitals are impersonal, swift-moving, and stressful. People flow in and out, as they would in a classroom building or a train station. Who would choose to put his or her sick child in a train station for treatment? Furthermore, the language of the hospital is nearly impossible for even an educated adult, let alone the adult of average education, to understand. Who would take his or her child to a foreign country to be treated in a language that neither child nor adult understood? (24-25)
some of his colleagues will disagree, calling Dr. Jones irresponsible, others
see his point. Feeling parents must wonder if a hospital stay only adds stress
and bewilderment on top of the pain and suffering of cancer. A train station atmosphere
is hardly a comforting or soothing atmosphere in which to get well. Doctors around
the country are beginning to heed Jones's call for changes to children's hospitals.
3. Length of Analysis
In general, include a quote because you wish to comment on it or respond to it. Your analysis of a quote should be as long as the quote. Three lines of quotation demands three lines of analysis; four lines of quotation demands four lines of analysis, and so on.
4. Changing or Eliminating
words within a Quote
Founded in the latter half of the 20th century as a response to troubled teens, Outward Bound is a program that encompasses swimming, boating, rock-climbing and camping with decision-making, leadership, and life lessons. It is, simply and permanently, life-changing.
a. If you change a word within a quote, put the change in brackets.
"[Outward Bound] is, simply and permanently, life-changing."
b. If you eliminate a word or words, use ellipses ( )
"Outward Bound is a program that encompasses camping with decision-making,
leadership, and life lessons. It is, simply and permanently, life-changing."
c. If you eliminate a section that goes past the end of the original sentence, use four "dots." ( .)
"Founded in the latter half of the 20th century as a response to troubled teens,
Outward Bound . is, simply and permanently, life-changing."
5. Quotes within a Quote
If you quote someone who has already quoted someone else, then change the inner quotes to single quotes.
Landscape architect Fred Olmsted said that petunias are "nature's answer to steel-walled skyscrapers."
of the Quotation:
"Landscape architect Fred Olmsted said that petunias are 'nature's answer to steel-walled skyscrapers.'"